By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U. citizens; they were one of the first major non-European ethnic groups to be granted citizenship.
(Article 14 in the 1830 treaty with the Choctaw stated Choctaws may wish to become citizens of the United States under the 14th Article of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on all of the combined lands which were consolidated under Article I from all previous treaties between the United States and the Choctaw.
The Choctaw in Oklahoma struggled to build a nation.
They transferred the Choctaw Academy there and opened an academy for girls in the 1840s.
During World War I, Choctaw soldiers served in the U. military as the first Native American codetalkers, using the Choctaw language.