The region was the centre of a culture whose influence extended throughout the Middle East and as far as the Indus valley, Egypt, and the Mediterranean.This article covers the history of Mesopotamia from the prehistoric period up to the Arab conquest in the 7th century Tigris rivers, north or northwest of the bottleneck at Baghdad, in modern Iraq; it is Al-Jazīrah (“The Island”) of the Arabs.Consequently,irrigation had been invented, bringing water to large stretches of territory through a widely branching network of canals.
The pantheon constitute the unifying factors, but in these also Mesopotamia shows its predilection for multiplicity and variety.
Written documents were turned out in quantities, and there are often many copies of a single text.
Consequently, southern Mesopotamia in particular was destined to be a land of trade from the start.
Only rarely could “empires” extending over a wider area guarantee themselves imports by plundering or by subjecting neighbouring regions.
The cultural superiority of north Mesopotamia, which may have lasted until about 4000 , was finally overtaken by the south when the people there had responded to the challenge of their situation.